Ichthyology

Ichthyology Collections

The Burke’s Ichthyology Collection includes more than 11 million specimens, including adults, juveniles, larvae, eggs, skeletons, tissues, otoliths and scales. The collection is by far the largest and one of the very few repositories in the world of ichthyological materials, from the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea.

In the past 35 years, the collection has grown tremendously as a result of substantial commitments from the National Science Foundation, the College of the Environment, the School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences and the National Marine Fisheries Service.

Search the Collections

Roughly 98% of the Ichthyology Collection is cataloged, databased and available to search via our databases. We are committed to providing open access to the biodiversity data we manage. In addition to making these data available here through the Burke Museum website, we partner with many international initiatives which aggregate biodiversity data allowing users to search collections from all over the world simultaneously through single search portals. More information about these organizations, including GBIF, OBIS, VertNet, iDigBio and FISH-BOL, can be found on our Online Resources page.

There are three large accessions that have not been cataloged: Mid-water fishes from the eastern North Pacific Ocean collected by the R/V Brown Bear in the 1950s, Columbia River estuarine fishes collected in the early 1980s, and Alaskan lake fishes collected in the mid-1990s. All of these collections were fixed in formalin and are not available for genetic studies. If you are interested in learning more about these collections, please contact the Collections Manager on the People and Contact page.

Collection Details

Fish specimens preserved in jars
Photo: Andrew Waits
Juvenile and Adult Specimens

There are approximately 400,000 specimens in 55,000 lots, representing some 4,100 species in 1,390 genera and 330 families. About 15% of the lots are freshwater fishes, mainly from the states of Washington, Oregon and Alaska. The remaining 85% are marine fishes collected primarily from the eastern North Pacific, the Aleutian Islands to Baja California, the western tropical Pacific, Christmas Island to Guam and the Philippines. The collection also includes smaller numbers of lots from many other locations around the world. All specimens are stored in glass jars or stainless steel tanks containing 70% ethanol.

 

Yellow fish larvae specimens on a white background
Photo: Burke Museum
Early Life History Collection

The early life history (ELH) collection continues to grow rapidly. There are approximately 115,000 lots, representing 53 families, 130 genera, and 181 species, including 35 identified only to "type.” Most lots were taken in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, primarily from the Gulf of Alaska, the Bering Sea and the U.S. Pacific Northwest Coast. Approximately 90% of the lots were collected from 1965 through 2006 by the Alaska Fisheries Science Center of the National Marine Fisheries Service, with additional material transferred to us annually. Significant material has also come to us from the School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, the International Pacific Halibut Commission and the Vancouver Public Aquarium. The habitats represented range from the nearshore intertidal zone to offshore oceanic waters.

The eggs are stored in glass vials of 3% buffered formalin. Specimens of different species taken together in a haul are frequently stored in the same vial, so the egg collection is arranged by year, cruise, station, haul, etc. The larvae are stored in 70% ethanol. All species from a haul are stored in separate vials and the collection is arranged phylogenetically. The entire ELH collection is housed in cardboard trays and wooden drawers within air-tight, light-proof cabinets.

 

Overhead view of tissue samples in plastic vials, organized into boxes. One vial is laying on top.
Photo: Burke Museum
Tissue Collection

Approximately 9,000 tissue samples in 5,800 lots, representing 815 species, are available to researchers. This collection is rapidly growing as we encourage more routine tissue sampling in the field. Tissues are initially preserved in 95% ethanol before being placed in our -86 C freezer for long-term storage. Almost all tissue samples have voucher specimens deposited in the collection. This ensures that identifications can be confirmed when contradictory molecular results occur.

 

Close up of an otolith, part of a fish ear, on a black background
Photo: Burke Museum
Otolith Collection

In 2012, a National Science Foundation grant allowed for the transfer and integration of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC) Otolith Collection. This collection is comprised of roughly 2.4 million pairs of fish otoliths, representing 83 species in 41 genera and 17 families, collected by AFSC personnel over the past 40 years in conjunction with North Pacific Groundfish Observer programs and annual shelf and slope surveys along the West Coast of the U.S., from California to Alaska, and from the Gulf of Alaska, Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea and Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean. Requests to borrow otoliths are welcome. All loan requests will be reviewed with AFSC personnel.

 

Dry fish bones lying on a black tray
Photo: Andrew Waits
Dry Skeleton Collection

The Skeleton Collection contains approximately 950 lots, representing 150 species in 50 families. Many are disarticulated specimens in boxes, but there is a large collection of Columbia River fish skeletons displayed partially embedded in clay in petri dishes. This preparation allows for easy comparisons of bone shape and size between species.

The Skeleton Collection continues to grow. Most of it has been donated by local archaeologists wanting to make their reference collections available to the public. The prepared specimens are the result of an avian predation study on the Columbia River that allowed SAFS researchers to identify the species of fishes present in bird stomachs.

 

Stained fish skeleton
Photo: Burke Museum
Cleared and Stained Specimens

Approximately 350 lots, representing 210 species in 63 families, are stored in full strength glycerin and maintained separately from the main collection. These skeletal preparations are augmented by an extensive library of X-rays of North Pacific fishes. Begun in 1981, this library now includes some 765 X-rays, including representatives of 135 species in 66 families.

 

Close up image of a salmon scale on a teal background
Photo: Burke Museum
Salmon Scale Collection

This is a unique historical collection of salmon scales (resulting from the UW High-Seas Salmon Program) containing some 800,000 samples taken from six species of anadromous salmonids from across the North Pacific Ocean over a 55 year period. Both original scale cards and acetate impressions are available.

 

 

Collections-Related Services

For more information about specimen loans, visiting the collections and other services, see the Services and Policies page.

Publications Based on the Collections

The following are publications selected from the years 2010-2014 that used the Burke Ichthyology collections in their research: 

Aldenhoven, J. T., M. A. Miller, et al. 2010. Phylogeography of ninespine sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius) in North America: glacial refugia and the origins of adaptive traits. Molecular Ecology 19(18): 4061–4076.

Amemiya, C. T., J. Alfoldi, et al. 2013. The African coelacanth genome provides insights into tetrapod evolution. Nature 496(7445): 311–316.

Andrews, K. S. and T. P. Quinn. 2012. Combining fishing and acoustic monitoring data to evaluate the distribution and movements of spotted ratfish Hydrolagus colliei. Marine Biology 159(4): 769–782.

Arnold, R. J. 2010. Evolutionary History of the Teleost Family Antennariidae (Order Lophiiformes): Evidence from DNA, Reproduction, and Geographic Distribution, with Notes on Conservation Implications. Unpublished MS thesis, University of Washington.

Arnold, R. J. 2012. A new species of frogfish of the genus Histiophryne (Teleostei: Lophiiformes: Antennariidae) from Lombok and Komodo, Indonesia. Zootaxa 3253: 62–68.

Arnold, R. J. 2013. A new species of frogfish of the genus Kuiterichthys (Lophiiformes: Antennariidae: Histiophryninae) from New South Wales, Australia. Zootaxa 3718(5): 496–499.

Arnold, R. J. 2014. Evolutionary Relationships of the Enigmatic Anglerfishes (Teleostei: Lophiiformes): A Comparison of Phylogenetic Methods. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Washington.

Arnold, R. J., R. Harcourt, and T. W. Pietsch. 2014. A New Genus and Species of the Frogfish Family Antennariidae (Teleostei: Lophiiformes: Antennarioidei) from New South Wales, Australia, With a Diagnosis and Key to the Genera of the Histiophryninae. Copeia 2014(3): 534–539.

Arnold, R. J., and T. W. Pietsch. 2011. A new species of frogfish of the genus Histiophryne (Teleostei: Lophiiformes: Antennariidae) from Queensland, Australia. Zootaxa 2925: 63–68.

Arnold, R. J., and T. W. Pietsch. 2012. Evolutionary history of frogfishes (Teleostei: Lophiiformes: Antennariidae): A molecular approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62(1): 117–129.

Atwood, E., J. T. Duffy-Anderson, et al. 2010. Influence of mesoscale eddies on ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Gulf of Alaska. Fisheries Oceanography 19(6): 493–507

Bacheler, N. M., L. Ciannelli, et al. 2010. Spatial and temporal patterns of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) spawning in the eastern Bering Sea inferred from egg and larval distributions. Fisheries Oceanography 19(2): 107–120.

Baldwin, Z. H. and J. W. Orr. 2010. A New Species of the Snailfish Genus Paraliparis (Scorpaeniformes: Liparidae) from the Eastern Bering Sea. Copeia 2010(4): 640–643.

Blood, D. M., A. C. Matarese. 2010. Larval development and identification of the genus Triglops (Scorpaeniformes: Cottidae). NOAA Professional Paper NMFS 10: 43.

Borden, W. C., T. Grande, and W.L. Smith. 2013. Comparative osteology and myology of the caudal fin in the Paracanthopterygii (Telesotei: Acanthomorpha). pp. 419–455, In: Mesozoic Fishes 5- Global Diversity and Evolution, H.-P. Schultze, G. Arratia, and M.V.H. Wilson.

Bradbury, M. G., and T. W. Pietsch. In Press. Family Ogcocephalidae. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. The Living Marine Resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic (Fishing Fishing Area 31). Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Vol. 2, Bony fishes, pt. 1 (Acipenseridae to Grammatidae).

Busby, M. S., D. M. Blood, A. J. Fleischer, and D. G. Nichol. 2012. Egg deposition and development of eggs and larvae of Bigmouth Sculpin (Hemitripterus bolini). Northwestern Naturalist 93: 1–16.

Campbell, M. and J. Lopéz. 2014. Mitochondrial phylogeography of a Beringian relict: the endemic freshwater genus of blackfish Dallia (Esociformes). Journal of Fish Biology 84(2): 523–538.

Canino, M., T. Buckley, et al. 2011. Developing rapid, accurate, DNA-based identification of larvae and dietary components of commercially important species. North Pacific Research Board, Final Report Project 924: 28.

Carnevale, G., and T.W. Pietsch. 2010. Eocene handfishes from Monte Bolca, with description of a new genus and species, and a phylogeny of the family Brachionichthyidae (Teleostei: Lophiiformes). Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 158(4): 1–27.

Carnevale, G., S. J. Godfrey, et al. 2011. Stargazer (Teleostei, Uranoscopidae) Cranial Remains from the Miocene Calvert Cliffs, Maryland, USA (St. Mary’s Formation, Chesapeake Group). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 31(6): 1200–1209.

Carnevale, G. and T. W. Pietsch. 2011. Batfishes from the Eocene of Monte Bolca. Geological Magazine 148(3): 461–472.

Carnevale, G. and T. W. Pietsch. 2012. †Caruso, a new genus of anglerfishes from the Eocene of Monte Bolca, Italy, with a comparative osteology and phylogeny of the teleost family Lophiidae. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 10(1): 47–72.

Chereshnev, I., O. Radchenko, et al. 2013. Relationships and position of the taxa of the subfamily Xiphisterinae in the system of the suborder Zoarcoidei (Perciformes). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 39(4): 276–286.

Cooper, D. W., J. T. Duffy-Anderson, et al. 2013. Modeled connectivity between northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) spawning and nursery areas in the eastern Bering Sea. Journal of Sea Research 84(0): 2–12.

Courtenay, W. R., Jr., B. B. Collette, T. E. Essington, R. Hilborn, J. W. Orr, D. Pauly, J. E. Randall, and W. F. Smith-Vaniz. 2009. Risks of introductions of marine fishes: reply to Briggs.Fisheries 34(4):181–186.

Courtenay, W. R., B. B. Collette, et al. 2010. North Atlantic Fisheries: A Response to Criticism of the Proactive Proposal Reply. Fisheries 35(6): 298–298.

De Forest, L. G., A. C. Matarese, et al. 2013. Larval descriptions of two eastern North Pacific cryptacanthodid species: Cryptacanthodes aleutensis and Cryptacanthodes giganteus. Northwestern Naturalist 94(2): 89–102.

Denton, J. S. 2014. Seven-locus molecular phylogeny of Myctophiformes (Teleostei; Scopelomorpha) highlights the utility of the order for studies of deep-sea evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 76: 270–292.

Doosey, M. H., and H. L. Bart, Jr. 2011. Morphological variation of the palatal organ and chewing pad of Catostomidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes). Journal of Morphology 272(9): 1092–1108.

Doosey, M. H., and N. D. Domke. 2014. Early Development of the Caudal Fin Skeleton of Capelin, Mallotus villosus (Osmeridae). Copeia 2014(2): 355–365.

Dornburg, A., B. Sidlauskas, et al. 2011. The Influence of an Innovative Locomotor Strategy on the Phenotypic Diversification of Triggerfish (Family: Balistidae). Evolution 65(7): 1912–1926.

Duffy-Anderson, J. T., D. M. Blood, et al. 2013. Combining field observations and modeling approaches to examine Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) early life ecology in the southeastern Bering Sea. Journal of Sea Research 75: 96–109.

Duffy-Anderson, J. T., D. M. Blood, et al. 2011. Stage-specific vertical distribution of Alaska plaice (Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus) eggs in the eastern Bering Sea. Fishery Bulletin 109(2): 162–169.

Duffy-Anderson, J. T., M. J. Doyle, et al. 2010. Early life ecology of Alaska plaice (Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus) in the eastern Bering Sea: Seasonality, distribution, and dispersal. Journal of Sea Research 64(1–2): 3–14.

Godfrey, S. J., G. Carnevale, and T. W. Pietsch. 2010. Coprolites Fill the Neurocranium of a Miocene Perciform Fish from Maryland. Geological Society of America Abstracts 42(1): 142.

Grande, T., W. C. Borden, and W. L. Smith. 2013. Limits and relationships of Paracanthopterygii: A molecular framework for evaluating past morphological hypotheses. pp. 385–418, In: Mesozoic Fishes 5- Global Diversity and Evolution. H.-P. S. G. Arratia, and M.V.H. Wilson.

Hanke, G. F., G. Gillespie, et al. 2014. New Records of Spiny Eels (Albuliformes), True Eels (Anguilliformes), and Bobtail Eels (Saccopharyngiformes) in British Columbia, Canada. Northwestern Naturalist 95(2): 63–76.

Hanke, G. F. and S. M. Roias. 2013. First Specimens of the Marine Eels Venefica ocella and V. tentaculata (Nettastomatidae) from British Columbia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 126(3): 210–216.

Hayes, M. C., R. Hays, et al. 2013. Distribution of Pacific Lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus in Watersheds of Puget Sound Based on Smolt Monitoring Data. Northwest Science 87(2): 95–105.

Hilton, E. J., and D. E. Stevenson. 2013. Osteology of the prowfish, Zaprora silenus (Cottiformes: Zoarcoidei: Zaproridae). Journal of Morphology 274(10): 1143–1163.

Hoff, G. R. 2010. Identification of skate nursery habitat in the eastern Bering Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 403: 243–254.

Ingram, T. 2011. Evolution of the trophic niche and food web structure. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

Iwamoto, T., G. M. Cailliet, D. M. Cohen, T. W. Pietsch, T. Tucker, R. J. Larson, and M. L. Martin. 2011. Margaret G. Bradbury (1927–2010) Obituary. Copeia 2011(4): 599–605.

Kai, Y., N. Muto, T. Noda, J. W. Orr, and T. Nakabo. 2013. First record of the rockfish Sebastes melanops from the western North Pacific, with comments on its synonymy (Osteichthyes: Scorpaenoidei: Sebastidae). Species Diversity 18: 175–182.

Kai, Y., J. W. Orr, et al. 2011. Genetic and morphological evidence for cryptic diversity in the Careproctus rastrinus species complex (Liparidae) of the North Pacific. Ichthyological Research 58(2): 143–154.

Kai, Y., K. Sakai, et al. 2011. Secondary contact in the Sea of Japan: the case of the Careproctus rastrinus species complex (Liparidae). Ichthyological Research 58(4): 366–369.

Kai, Y., D. Stevenson, et al. 2014. Molecular insights into geographic and morphological variation within the Eumicrotremus asperrimus species complex (Cottoidei: Cyclopteridae). Ichthyological Research 62(10): 1–13.

Kamikawa, D. J., and D. E. Stevenson. 2010. New Records of Aldrovandia Oleosa (Notacanthiformes: Halosauridae) from the Eastern North Pacific Ocean. California Fish and Game 96(3): 216–220.

Kenaley, C. P. 2010. Comparative innervation of cephalic photophores of the loosejaw dragonfishes (Teleostei: Stomiiformes: Stomiidae): Evidence for parallel evolution of long-wave bioluminescence. Journal of Morphology 271(4): 418–437.

Kenaley, C. P. 2012. A Device for Dampening Drag: A Novel Hypothesis for the Function of Enormous Fangs in Deep-sea Fishes. Integrative and Comparative Biology 52: E92–E92.

Kenaley, C. P. 2012. Exploring feeding behaviour in deep-sea dragonfishes (Teleostei: Stomiidae): jaw biomechanics and functional significance of a loosejaw. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 106(1): 224–240.

Kenaley, C. P., S. C. Devaney, et al. 2014. The complex evolutionary history of seeing red: molecular phylogeny and the evolution of an adaptive visual system in deep-sea dragonfishes (Stomiiformes: Stomiidae). Evolution 68(4): 996–1013.

Kinziger, A. P., and R. M. Wood. 2010. Cottus immaculatus, a new species of sculpin (Cottidae) from the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri, USA. Zootaxa 2340: 50–64.

Knope, M. L. 2013. Phylogenetics of the marine sculpins (Teleostei: Cottidae) of the North American Pacific Coast. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66(1): 341–349.

Lago, F. C., B. Herrero, et al. 2011. Genetic identification of horse mackerel and related species in seafood products by means of forensically informative nucleotide sequencing methodology. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59(6): 2223–2228.

Lago, F. C., J. M. Vieites, et al. 2012. Development of a FINS-based method for the identification of skate species of commercial interest. Food Control 24(1): 38–43.

Laman, E. A., and J. W. Orr. 2011. First record of an aurora rockfish, Sebastes aurora, from Alaskan waters. Northwestern Naturalist 92(3): 230–232.

Laurel, B. J., and D. M. Blood. 2011. The effects of temperature on hatching and survival of northern rock sole larvae (Lepidopsetta polyxystra). Fishery Bulletin 109(3): 282–291.

Lea, R. N. 2013. Record of the Kamchatka Flounder, Atheresthes evermanni, in California Waters. Northwestern Naturalist 94(3): 244–246.

Lemoine, M., M. K. Young, et al. 2014. Cottus schitsuumsh, a new species of sculpin (Scorpaeniformes: Cottidae) in the Columbia River basin, Idaho-Montana, USA. Zootaxa 3755(3): 241–258.

Logerwell, E. A., J. Duffy-Anderson, et al. 2010. The influence of pelagic habitat selection and interspecific competition on productivity of juvenile walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and capelin (Mallotus villosus) in the Gulf of Alaska. Fisheries Oceanography 19(4): 262–278.

Mabee, P. M., E. A. Grey, et al. 2011. Gill arch and hyoid arch diversity and cypriniform phylogeny: Distributed integration of morphology and web-based tools. Zootaxa 2877: 1–40.

Okamoto, M., D. E. Stevenson, and H. Motomura. 2014. First record of Paracaristius maderensis from the central North Pacific and a second specimen of Platyberyx rhyton (Perciformes: Caristiidae). Biogeography 16: 23–29.

Marliave, J. B., D. I. Kent, et al. 2010. Larval development of Asemichthys taylori (Cottidae). Ichthyological Research 57(2): 199–203.

Maslenikov, K. P., J. W. Orr, et al. 2013. Range Extensions and Significant Distributional Records for Eighty-two Species of Fishes in Alaskan Marine Waters. Northwestern Naturalist 94(1): 1–21.

Matarese, A., I. Spies, M. S. Busby, and J. W. Orr. 2011. Early larvae of Zesticelus profundorum (family Cottidae) identified using DNA barcoding. Ichthyological Research 58:170–174.

McDowall, R. M. and C. P. Burridge. 2011. Osteology and relationships of the southern freshwater lower euteleostean fishes. Zoosystematics and Evolution 87(1): 7–185.

Mecklenburg, C. W., P. R. Moller, and D. Steinke. 2011. Biodiversity of Arctic marine fishes: taxonomy and zoogeography. Marine Biodiversity 41: 109–140.

Miya, M., T. W. Pietsch, et al. 2010. Evolutionary history of anglerfishes (Teleostei: Lophiiformes): a mitogenomic perspective. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10(58): 1–27.

Near, T. J., A. Dornburg, et al. 2013. Phylogeny and tempo of diversification in the super radiation of spiny-rayed fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110(31): 12738–12743.

Near, T. J., A. Dornburg, et al. 2014. Phylogenetic relationships and timing of diversification in gonorynchiform fishes inferred using nuclear gene DNA sequences (Teleostei: Ostariophysi). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 80: 297–307.

Near, T. J., A. Dornburg, R. C. Harrington, C. Oliveira, T. W. Pietsch, C. E. Thacker, T. P. Satoh, E. Katayama, P. C. Wainwright, J. T. Eastman, and J. M. Beaulieu. Submitted. Identification of the Notothenioid Sister Lineage Illuminates the Biogeographic History of an Antarctic Adaptive Radiation. BMC Evolution, 28 ms pp., 3 figs., 1 table.

Near, T. J., R. I. Eytan, et al. 2012. Resolution of ray-finned fish phylogeny and timing of diversification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109(34): 13698–13703.

Norcross, B. L., B. A. Holladay, M. S. Busby, and K. L. Mier. 2010. Demersal and larval fish assemblages in the Chukchi Sea. Deep-Sea Res. II 57: 57–70.

Orr, J. W., D. E. Stevenson, G. R. Hoff, I. Spies, and J. D. McEachran. 2011. Bathyraja panthera, a new species of skate (Rajidae: Arhynchobatinae) from the western Aleutian Islands, and resurrection of the subgenus Arctoraja Ishiyama. NOAA Professional Papers NMFS 11: 50.

Orr, J. W. 2012. Two New Species of Snailfishes of the Genus Careproctus (Scorpaeniformes: Liparidae) from the Bering Sea and Eastern North Pacific Ocean, with a Redescription of Careproctus ovigerus. Copeia 2012(2): 257–265.

Orr, J. W. In Press. Pleuronectiformes, flatfishes, soles, and hogchokers. North American Freshwater Fishes: Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior. B. B. a. M. Warren, Johns Hopkins University Press, 80 ms pp.

Orr, J. W., S. Wides, Y. Kai, N. Raring, T. Nakabo, O. Katugin, and J. Guyon. In Press. Systematics of North Pacific sand lances of the genus Ammodytes based on molecular and morphological evidence, with the description of a new species from Japan. Fishery Bulletin.

Overdick, A., M. Busby, et al. 2014. Descriptions of eggs of snailfishes (family Liparidae) from the Bering Sea and eastern North Pacific Ocean. Ichthyological Research 61(2): 131–141.

Paquin, M. M., T. W. Buckley, et al. 2014. DNA-based identification methods of prey fish from stomach contents of 12 species of eastern North Pacific groundfish. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 85: 110–117.

Paquin, M. M., A. N. Kagley, et al. 2014. First Records of the Night Smelt, Spirinchus starksi, in the Salish Sea, Washington. Northwestern Naturalist 95(1): 40–43.

Pietsch, T. W. 2010. The World’s Smallest Sexually Mature Vertebrate. Practical Fishkeeping, January, 2010

Pietsch, T. W. 2010. [Species accounts: anglerfish, amberjack, hake, menhaden, sprat, sole]. The World Book Encyclopedia, Chicago, Illinois, vols. 1:405, 9:17, 13:400, 18:582.

Pietsch, T. W. 2011. Historical Perspectives: Greenwood, Rosen, Weitzman, and Myers: Circumstances Surrounding the Publication of “Phyletic Studies of Teleostean Fishes, With a Provisional Classification of Living Forms,” 1966. Copeia 2011(4):590–598.

Pietsch, T. W. In Press. [Lophiiform families: Antennariidae and 11 families of the deep-sea Ceratioidei.] pp. 000–000, In: FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. The Living Marine Resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Vol. 2, Bony fishes, pt. 1 (Acipenseridae to Grammatidae), 32 ms pp.

Pietsch, T. W. In Press. Order Lophiiformes: Introduction, with a Key to the Families. pp. 000–000, In: P. C. Heemstra and J. E. Randall (editors), Coastal Fishes of the Western Indian Ocean, Macmillan South Africa Ltd., vol. 2, 6 ms pp., 9 figs.

Pietsch, T. W., and H. Aili. 2014. Jacob Theodor Klein (1685−1759) and his Petri Artedi operum brevis recensio: a previously unknown critique of Peter Artedi’s (1705−1735) Ichthyologia sive opera omnia de piscibus, Wishoff, Leiden, 1738. Svenska Linné-sällskapets Årsskrift, Uppsala, 2014:39–84.

Pietsch, T. W., and R. J. Arnold. In Press. Family Antennariidae. pp. 000–000, In: P. C. Heemstra and J. E. Randall (editors), Coastal Fishes of the Western Indian Ocean, Macmillan South Africa Ltd., vol. 2, 25 ms pp., 12 figs.

Pietsch, T. W., V. V. Bogatov, S. Yu. Storozhenko, A. S. Lelej, V. Yu. Barkalov, H. Takahashi, S. L. Joneson, S. K. Kholin, K. A. Glew, J. A. Harpel, P. V. Krestov, E. A. Makarchenko, N. Minakawa, M. Ôhara, D. J. Bennett, T. R. Anderson, R. L. Crawford, L. A. Prozorova, Y. Kuwahara, S. V. Shedko, M. Yabe, P. J. Woods, D. E. Stevenson. 2012. Biodiversity and biogeography of Sakhalin Island, Russian Far East. pp. 11–78, In: S. Y. Storozhenko (editor), Flora and Fauna of the Northwest Pacific Islands: Materials Resulting from the International Kuril Island and International Sakhalin Island Projects, Russian Academy of Sciences, Far Eastern Branch, Institute of Biology and Soil Science, Dalnauka, Vladivostok.

Pietsch, T. W., and G. Carnevale. 2011. †Sharfia mirabilis, A New Genus and Species of Anglerfish (Teleostei: Lophiiformes: Lophiidae) from the Eocene of Monte Bolca, Italy. Copeia 2011(1):64–71.

Pietsch, T. W., J. H. Caruso, C. R. Fisher, S. W. Ross, and M. G. Saunders. 2013. In-Situ Observations of the Deep-sea Goosefish Sladenia shaefersi Caruso and Bullis (Lophiiformes: Lophiidae), With Evidence of Extreme Sexual Dimorphism. Copeia 2013(4):660–665.

Pietsch, T. W., J. H. Caruso, C. R. Fisher, S. W. Ross, and M. G. Saunders. 2014. In-situ image of Sladenia shaefersi in the northern Gulf of Mexico, individual in the foreground approximately 570 mm SL, specimen behind, about 615 mm SL, ROV Little Hercules, aboard NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer, depth 1165 m, April 2012 (frame-grab from video). Copeia 2014(1): cover photograph. 

Pietsch, T. W., and C. P. Kenaley. 2011. A New Species of Deep-sea Anglerfish, Genus Himantolophus (Lophiiformes: Himantolophidae), From Southern Waters of All Three Major Oceans of the World. Copeia 2011(4):490–496.

Pietsch, T. W., and J. W. Orr. Accepted. Fishes of the Salish Sea: A Compilation and Distributional Analysis. NOAA Professional Papers NMFS 00, U.S. Department of Commerce, 315 ms pp., 2 figs., 8 color pls., 1 table.

Pietsch, T. W., J. W. Orr, and W. N. Eschmeyer. 2012. Mustelus felis Ayres, 1854, a Senior Synonym of the Leopard Shark, Triakis semifasciata Girard, 1855 (Carchariniformes: Triakidae), Invalidated by “Reversal of Precedence.” Copeia 2012(1):98–99.

Pietsch, T. W., and T. T. Sutton. Accepted. A New Species of the Ceratioid Anglerfish genus Lasiognathus Regan (Lophiiformes: Oneirodidae) from the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Copeia, 10 ms pp., 2 figs.

Raring, N. W. and D. E. Stevenson. 2010. A Brief Survey of the Mesopelagic Fishes of the Gulf of Alaska. California Fish and Game 96(3): 188–200.

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Rogers, C. S., T. W. Pietsch, J. E. Randall, and R. J. Arnold. 2010. The Sargassum Frog-fish (Histrio histrio Linnaeus) observed in mangroves in St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Coral Reefs, published online, 18 June 2010, DOI 10.1007/s00338-010-0636-z.

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Stewart, A. L., and T. W. Pietsch. 2010. A new species of deep-sea anglerfish, genus Himantolophus (Lophiiformes: Himantolophidae) from the Western South Pacific, with comments on the validity of H. pseudalbinares. Zootaxa 2671: 53–60.

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