1. 521 Summit Avenue East, No. 202, Seattle, Washington 98102,
and School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Box 355100, University of Washington, Seattle 98195-5100. firstname.lastname@example.org
2. The School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (SAFS) has undergone
several name changes during its history. Originally a College of Fisheries, it has variously been a Department of Fisheries, a School of Fisheries, again a College of Fisheries, and, since 2001, the School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences. Hereafter the term "School" is used to cover all names. Robert R. Stickney, a former Director, wrote a history of the School based largely on a manuscript prepared by another former Dean, Richard Van Cleve (Stickney, 1989). A brief history of the School is also present on the website: Geninfo/history.
3. The Fish Collection is administratively in the School of Aquatic and
Fishery Sciences and is also an "affiliate collection" of the Burke Memorial Washington State Museum of Natural History and Culture. For Information on the early years of the Fish Collection, see the Leonard Peter Schultz interview, 1976. Smithsonian Institution Archives (SIA), Record Unit (RU) 9510, pp. 4, 7-23. Also, see Schultz to Richard Van Cleve [n.d., but 1980s], Port Republic, Maryland. SAFS, "Flagship"; archives, Box 3.3.1, No. 3 "photocopies."
4. The collection of fishes of Puget Sound and adjacent waters dates to
about 1880. For a review of some of these early collection efforts, see Pietsch
(1997) and Pietsch and Dunn (1997).
5. From the Fish Collection website at Geninfo/status.html. The collection holds five holotype and 85 paratype specimens. A lot consists of all the specimens of a single species collected during a single sampling event (e.g., a haul).
6. The term "Curator of Fishes" was not an official title of a position in the School of Fisheries until about 1963. In that year the UW established a new position of "Curator of Fishes". See Van Cleve to President Charles Odegaard, dated UW 16 August 1963. In: "Deans Files, Adm: Personnel & Faculty, McPhail, John Donald." UW Fish Collection files, Curators, McPhail. Supervision of the Fish Collection has always been one of the primary functions of the ichthyologists who have been on the faculty.
7. In the most recent survey of fish collections in the United States and
Canada, the UW Collection ranked fifth in terms of importance among "Regional Centers" (Poss and Collette, 1995). Its ranking would be significantly higher today due to recent large accessions of fish eggs and larvae. In specific areas of importance, the Collection was ranked fourth in National Science Foundation support among all 118 collections surveyed and was ranked highly also for biodiversity (12th overall), accession activity (10th overall), exchange activity (5th overall), and number of visitors (18th overall). See note 5, above.
8. Biographical information on Cobb may be found in Anon. (1943)
and Schultz (1930). Portions of Cobb's career were described in a B.A. thesis by J. C. Webb (John N. Cobb: Conservationist and canneryman. Unpubl. B.A. Thesis, Scripps College, California, 95 pp., 1986) and in a senior paper prepared by D. Henken for a history of science course at the University of Washington (John Nathan Cobb: Cooperation between hydro and fisheries in the 1920's, 72 pp., 1999).
9. Ichthyology was first offered at the UW from 1915-1918 in the Department of Zoology by Trevor Charles Digby Kincaid (1872-1970), the chairman of the Department. Kincaid then taught the course under the auspices of the College of Fisheries from 1919-1924, after which other faculty members in Zoology and Fisheries presented the class until the first ichthyologist was hired in 1928. See course catalogs, UW Manuscripts, Special Collections, and University Archives (MSCUA); Stickney (1989). Melville Harrison Hatch (1898-1988), a long-time professor in the Department of Zoology, wrote a history of the UW Zoology Department that describes briefly the Departments' early course offerings. See Hatch, M. H. MS . History of Zoology at the University of Washington, 133 p. MSCUA. College of Fisheries letterhead used during 1921-1923 listed Kincaid as "Professor of Ichthyology" (e.g., Cobb to Arthur Mann, U. S. National Museum, SIA, RU 7292). Kincaid was a pioneer zoologist of Washington State and published an annotated checklist of the fishes of Puget Sound (Kincaid, 1919). He was active in the UW efforts to form a school of fisheries in the early part of the 20th century. Additional information on Kincaid may be found in Hatch (1950) and Guberlet (1975).
10. Cobb to Leonard P. Schultz, dated UW 26 April 1927: "I have in
mind the development of a separate department of ichthyology (it is now combined with that of fish culture)….” Leonard Peter Schultz papers, SIA, (RU) 7222, Box (B) 15, Folder (F) 12.
11. Hubbs became the pre-eminent ichthyologist of North America in
the mid-20th century. For information on Hubbs, see Miller and Shor (1997).
12. Leonard Peter Schultz interview, 1976. SIA, RU 9510, p. 4.
Schultz to Richard Van Cleve [n.d., but ca 19780], Port Republic,
Maryland. SAFS, “Flagship” archives, Box 3.3.1, No. 3 “photocopies.”
13. Telegram, Cobb to Schultz, dated UW 10 May 1928: “Are you
in position to consider offer of Ichthyology position College of Fisheries.” See also Cobb to Schultz, dated UW 18 May 1928, and Schultz to Cobb, dated 24 May 1928. All in Leonard Peter Schultz papers, SIA, RU 7222, B 15, F 12.
14. Cobb to Schultz, dated UW 4 June 1928. Leonard Peter Schultz
papers, SIA, RU 7222, B 15, F 12.
15. Leonard Peter Schultz interview, 1976. SIA, RU 9510, p. 23. Schultz to Richard Van Cleve [n.d., but ca 1978], Port Republic,
Maryland. SAFS, “Flagship” archives, Box 3.3.1, No. 3 “photocopies.”
These “co-types” were likely the result of collections made in Puget Sound by Edwin Chapin Starks (1867-1932) during the late 1890s and early 1900s. Pietsch (1997) described Starks work in the Pacific Northwest.
16. Schultz recalled that he “one day discovered in one of the old
wooden fish storage cabinets in the basement an open case of dynamite. It was disintegrating into a white powder. One of the explosive experts in the College of Mining came down and removed it at my request.” Schultz to Richard Van Cleve [n.d., but ca 19780], Port Republic, Maryland. SAFS, “Flagship” archives, Box 3.3.1, No. 3 “photocopies.”
17. Schultz to Cobb, dated UW 12 October 1928. MSCUA, UW Fisheries College, Record Group (RG) 74-6, B 23, F 28. Cobb argued to the UW administration for larger space for the Fish Collection “for storing our rapidly growing and valuable scientific collection of preserved specimens fishes, and the housing of our research students in ichthyology.” Cobb to Deans David Thompson and F. M. Padelford, dated UW 9 April 1929. MSCUA, John N. Cobb Papers, RG 1595-6, B 5, F 2, “Outgoing letters, 1905-1929.”
18. The College of Science is first listed in the UW Catalog Number for
1930-1931, pp. 105-120. A Department of Fisheries in the College of Science is first found in Bulletin of the UW Catalog Number for 1931-1932 Sessions, General Series No. 300, pp. 286-287. The Department of Fisheries was elevated to a School of Fisheries in the UW Catalog Number for 1934-1935, General Series No. 380, pp. 192-193. All in MSCUA.
19. For information on Thompson, see Stickney (1989) and Dunn
(2002). The International Fisheries Commission is now the International Pacific Halibut Commission.
20. Several of Schultz’s publications of this era were cited by Hart (1973).
21. Records of accession of fishes to the Collection prior to the use of
computers are rather inadequate. For details of the method used to estimate the number of lots accessioned under each Curator, see note 1, Table 1.
22. Schultz to J. E. Graf, Associate Director, U.S. National Museum
(USNM), dated UW 24 November 1936. “The disposal of the specimens, gift or loan, should await my arrival.” “Tanks 1 and 2 contained tin-tagged fish which were catalogued as part of the School of Fisheries collection.” “Tanks 3 and 5 contain unidentified fish. Tank 4 and the wooden keg contain catalogued formalin preserved fish which were part of the School of Fisheries collection. Tank 6 contains the more valuable catalogued fish….” SIA, RU 305, F 142501.
23. Schultz to Graf dated UW 8 December 1936 (with 25 page
inventory). SIA, RU 305, F 142501, Cat. No. 104365-104845.
24. W. F. Thompson to Schultz, dated UW 26 January 1937. SIA, RU
305, File 142501. Associate Director Graf notified Thompson of the
transfer in a letter dated 28 January 1937. See Graf to W. F. Thompson,
dated USNM 28 January 1937. SIA, RU 305, F 142501.
25. Schultz to Thompson, dated USNM 1 February 1937, SIA, RU 305,
26. Ibid. Schultz’s claim that the Collection contained over 100,000
fishes in the 1930s is a huge exaggeration. Schultz himself had accessioned only about 4,216 lots by 1937 (Table 1).
27. See note 25, above.
28. Schultz to Thompson, dated USNM 10 June 1937, SIA, RU 305, F 142501.
29. Thompson to Schultz, dated UW 16 June 1937 (with appendices). SIA, RU 305, F142501.
30. Schultz to Thompson, dated USNM 2 September 1937 (with three
appendices). SIA, RU 305, File 142501.
31. Thompson to Schultz, dated UW 28 September 1937: “We are all
agreed that the exchange is a fair one and will be glad to have you proceed with it.” SIA, RU 305, F 142501.
32. Schultz to Thompson, dated UW 15 November 1937, SIA, RU 305,
F 142501 (with a 9-page appendix). The USNM transferred 459
specimens from their collection of UW fishes to the Field Museum of
Natural History, Chicago, Illinois in 1937. See Graf to Thompson, dated
USNM 23 November 1937. SIA, RU 305, F 142501.
33. In his oral history interview in 1976, Schultz is quoted as saying “I
brought back to the Smithsonian Institution (National Museum), oh, about seven thousand specimens from the collection that I wanted to be sure were adequately preserved, because when I left, there wasn’t any assurance that they would be taken care of, and so I brought back the types of the mud minnow. There were some other types that had been sent out there to the Young Naturalists Society from the National Museum, and I’m sure the people that sent them out from here didn’t know they were types. So I brought all of those back that I could find before I came.” Leonard Peter Schultz interview, 1976. SIA, RU 9510, p. 23. Schultz did not mention the transfer of fishes to the USNM when asked some 40 years later by Richard Van Cleve to recall his work at the UW from 1928-1936. Schultz to Richard Van Cleve [n.d., but ca 1978], Port Republic, Maryland. SAFS, “Flagship” archives, Box 3.3.1, No. 3 “photocopies.”
34. Schultz to Charles E. Odegaard, dated USNM 12 December 1958. SIA, RU 234, B18, F 6.
35. Van Cleve to Frederick P. Thieme, dated UW 2 February 1959.
UW Fish Collection files, Curators, Schultz.
36. Schultz to Odegaard, dated USNM 28 June 1960. SIA, RU 234,
Division of Fishes 1922, 1927-1964 General Correspondence, B 18, F 6. The annual report of the School for 1959 listed only 10 teaching faculty. This publication listed seven research staff in the School, and seven research faculty, as well as 10 research staff, in the Fisheries Research Institute, making a total of 34 faculty and research staff positions (Koo, 1960).
37. Thompson to L. P. Sieg, dated UW 28 November 1939. MSCUA,
UW Fisheries College, Accession (A) 74-6, B 19, F 11.
38. Schultz to W. M. Chapman, dated USNM 11 December 1939.
MSCUA, UW Fisheries College, A 74-6, B 25, F 14.
39. W. M. Chapman to Welander, dated New York 7 June
1947. MSCUA, Presidents Papers, RU 71-34, B 104, Arts & Sciences,
Fisheries 1946-1948. A typed copy (marked “true copy”) of this letter is in SAFS, “Flagship” archives, Box 3.3.2, “photocopies.”
40. Welander to W. M. Chapman, dated 17 June 1947. A photocopy
(marked 2nd copy) of this letter is in SAFS, “Flagship” archives, Box 3.3.2, “photocopies.” I was unable to locate this letter in the W. M. Chapman files, MSCUA.
41. Allan C. DeLacy to W. M. Chapman, dated UW 12 June
1947. MSCUA, W. M. Chapman papers, A 1852, Outgoing Letters, F 19.
42. DeLacy to W. M. Chapman, dated UW 3 July 1947. MSCUA, W.
M. Chapman papers, A 1852, Outgoing Letters, F 19.
43. Schultz to W. M. Chapman, dated USNM 15 September 1947.
MSCUA, W. M. Chapman papers, A 1852, Outgoing Letters, F 10;
W. M. Chapman to Carl L, Hubbs, dated UW 13 April 1948. MSCUA,
W. M. Chapman papers, A 1852, Outgoing Letters, F 16.
44. Herre to W. M. Chapman, dated Manila 20 November 1947: “If
I were young enough to be eligible, I’d make a try at a job of teaching ichthyology in your school. There is a big opportunity there for giving students a fundamental basis and a general view of the fishes of the world, before specializing on the important families of the north and the Arctic.” See also Herre to W. M. Chapman, dated Manila 1 February 1948. MSCUA, W. M. Chapman papers, A 1852, Incoming Letters, F 9. I could not find a letter from Chapman to Herre specifically offering him a position at the UW. However there are several letters from Chapman to Herre about this new job. For example, see Chapman to Herre, dated UW 13 January 1948: “I do not know what kind of an arrangement we can makeand it will not be possible to do much until we get into our new building next yearbut there must be some arrangement that we can make which will be mutually advantageous and permit you to carry on your studies on fishes.” MSCUA, W. M. Chapman papers, A 1852, Outgoing Letters, F 16.
45. For additional information about this aspect of the history of the
School of Fisheries, see Stickney (1989).
46. Herre’s 218 publications on fishes are listed in Herre (1997). His
work on lichens is described by Wiggins (1962).
47. “Notes on collecting trips by Albert W. C. T. Herre between 1920
and 1948.” Unpublished report by Herre marked “for Ann. Report 1948.” MSCUA, A. W. C. T. Herre papers, RG 2711-72-28, F 1.
48. William I. Aron, pers. comm., 17 July 2002.
49. The new area for the Collection provided approximately 2,540
square feet of floor space plus adjoining cataloging and preparation rooms. See note 67, below.
50. See note 47, above. The fishes collected by Herre from the
Philippine Islands were later transferred to the California Academy of Sciences. See also note 62, below.
51. Van Cleve to Danielle M. Gaines, dated UW 16 August 1963, In:
“Deans Files, Adm: Personnel & Faculty, McPhail, John Donald.” UW Fish Collection files, Curators, McPhail.
52. McPhail’s Curriculum Vitae. Ibid.
53. Van Cleve to Odegaard, dated UW 28 January 1966. Ibid.
54. See letters of recommendation: W. A. Clemens to W. F. Royce,
dated University of British Columbia (UBC), 11 July 1963; Norman J.
Wilimovsky to Royce, dated UBC 11 July 1963; and P. A. Larkin to W. F. Royce, dated UBC 28 June 1963. See note 51, above.
55. McPhail to William F. Royce, dated University of British Columbia,
Vancouver 28 June 1963. See note 51, above.
56. The Fish Collection was moved from the first floor to the basement
of the Fisheries Center in 1961. McPhail reorganized the Collection and added substantial new material to it during his tenure. See note 49, above.
57. See note 53, above. See also University of Washington Bulletin,
1965-1966, General Catalog issue, pp. 407. MSCUA.
58. See note 53, above.
59. Profile of Donald McPhail at http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/person/mcphail, 30 January 2002. McPhail shipped, without permission, an unknown number of fishes from the UW Collection to the University of British Columbia. A list of the fishes in this transfer, if such was ever made, has never been provided to the UW. T. W. Pietsch, pers. comm., 28 June 2002. McPhail did not respond to a written inquiry by the author on 12 March 2002 about his years at the School of Fisheries.
60. Donald E. Bevan to Joseph McCarthy, dated UW 15 September
1967. MSCUA, UW Fisheries College, RG 84-49, outgoing mail, September 1967.
61. See University of Washington Bulletin, 1970-1972. General
Catalog issue, pp. 477-478. MSCUA.
62. The type specimens of the Collection, consisting of 13 holotypes
and 112 paratypes, representing 48 nominal species described by Herre,
were transferred to the U. S. National Museum in September, 1967
(Meldrin and Wadley, 1968). See also note 50, above.
63. In the biennium of 1971-1972, the University of Washington
underwent a financial crisis (de Yonge, 1970; Emery, 1971). Responding
to a significant budget cut to the UW by the State Legislature, the University administration directed the School to reduce its budget by $99,906. To meet the mandated budget cut the School was forced to reduce personnel by 2.38 Full Time Equivalents (FTE’s). As a FTE without tenure, Hagen’s position was eliminated and he was terminated effective 1 September 1972. See Douglas G. Chapman (Dean) to Solomon Katz (Provost), dated UW 9 July 1971. MSCUA, UW Fisheries College, RG 84-49, Box 1 “blue copies correspondence 1971.”
64. Hagen was listed on the faculty roster of the Department of Biology,
University of New Brunswick, 8 May 2002 at www.unb.ca/ph/. Hagen did not respond to a written inquiry by the author on 21 June 2002 about his years as Curator of the Fish Collection at UW.
65. Pietsch’s vita is at Burkemuseum.org.
67. See T. W. Pietsch, 1987, pp. 4, 5, Care and use of the fish
collection at the School of Fisheries of the University of Washington, unpublished National Science Foundation grant proposal, 14 May 1987, University of Washington, Seattle.
69. In March 1980, 373 lots of fishes were transferred to the California
Academy of Sciences and in July 1982, an additional 941 lots were sent. The total of 1,314 lots contained 4,769 specimens. UW Fish Collection files, California Academy of Sciences gifts and exchanges, invoice 061, dated 22 March 1980 and invoice 455, dated 19 July 1982. Although by prior agreement the CAS was supposed to provide an equal number of specimens to UW in exchange, this material was never sent. T. W. Pietsch, pers. comm., 5 October 2002.
70. Pietsch, pers. comm., 10 October 2002. See also note 65, above.
71. Three of Pietsch’s graduate students at the California State
University, David B. Grobecker, Douglas W. Nelson, and John P. Van Duzer, transferred to the UW when Pietsch moved to Seattle. Nelson obtained an M.S. degree and Grobecker completed his Ph.D. at the UW (Appendix).
72. See note 65, above.
75. For more complete information on the new facilities, see Pietsch (1990).
76. The preserving fluid was changed for economy purposes from
ethanol to isopropanol alcohol in ca 1950s. Welander to Herre, n.d., but 1956. Fish Collection correspondence, 1956.
77. See note 65, above.
78. [Pietsch, T. W., n.d.] “Brief history of the Fish Collection” located
80. An additional large room adjacent to the office of the Collections
Manager was assigned to the Collection in the mid-1990s. It is used for the ichthyology library, for additional laboratory space, and for computer workstations.
81. See note 78, above.
82. Pietsch, T. W. 1990. Establishment of an archival center for early
life history stages of fishes at the School of Fisheries. Unpublished National Science Foundation grant proposal, 4 September 1990, University of Washington, Seattle.
84 See note 78, above.
85 T. W. Pietsch, pers. comm., 25 July 2002.
86. See note 78, above.
87. These records are accessible on the Internet at www.artedi.fish.washington.edu. Brogan’s post-doctoral appointment expired in late 1996 and he left the program for a more permanent position. Brogan to Pietsch, dated UW 16 October 1996. T. W. Pietsch files.
88. For information on the Society, see the GIS website at GIS/home.html. Information about Gilbert may be found in Dunn (1997).
89 See note 78, above.
92. Ibid. Urbain received a Distinguished Service Award in 1996 from the College of Ocean and Fishery Sciences for the development and implementation of this “Outreach” program.
93. Pietsch to Arthur W. Kendall, dated UW 27 May 1999, and 25
August 2000; Pietsch to Ann C. Matarese, dated UW 1 February 2001. All in T. W. Pietsch files. This contract partially supported Erin L. MacDonald, a graduate student of Pietschs who received her M.S. degree in 2001 (Appendix).
94. See note 65, above.
95. See “Welcome to IKIP" at the IKIP website.
97. Pietsch, T. W. 2000. Project Description. Pp. 1, In: Biodiversity of
Okhotskia, Phase 2: Sakhalin Island, unpublished National Science Foundation grant proposal, 12 October 1990, University of Washington, Seattle.
99. T. W. Pietsch, pers. comm., 20 June 2002.
100. See 2000 NSF Annual ReportYear-Six, note 94, above.
101. The website is Okhotskia
102. See note 65, above.
103. Pietsch, T. W. 2001. Project Summary, pp. i, In: Biodiversity of
the Russian Far East: Sakhalin Island. Unpublished National Science Foundation grant proposal, 16 November 2001, University of Washington, Seattle.
104. From Okhotskia database at the website okhotskia/database/index.htm.
105. This total included not only fishes but also about 6,400 lichens,
mosses, and liverworts; nearly 14,000 vascular plants; over 48,000 aquatic and 157,000 terrestrial insects (juveniles and immature stages excluded); 31,000 spiders and harvesters (juveniles and immature stages excluded); 32,000 mollusks; and 238 amphibians and reptiles. The plants, spiders and harvesters, fishes, amphibians, and reptiles have been identified and cataloged at the UW. The insects have been sorted to order, much of them labeled and pinned out, and shipped for archival storage to the California Academy of Sciences. The mollusks have been processed at the Delaware Museum of Natural History, Wilmington, and are eventually destined to go in part to the University of Michigan. See note 101, above.
107. Publications based on IKIP are listed under “Journal Publications”
108. The IKIP International Symposium website is at www.museum.hokudai.ac.jp/activity/symposium/IKIPhomepage.
109. During 1994-1996 Pietsch had a post-doctoral student from
Japan. Toshiro Saruwatari (1962-) of the Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, spent 1994-1996 at the UW working on osmerid fishes (e.g., Saruwatari et al., 1997). See note 65, above.
110. Mrs. Gilbert also made other periodic financial gifts to the UW
Fish Collection, the Gilbert Ichthyological Society, and to the author for his historical research.
111. Pearson's vita is at Burkemuseum.orgPearson immediately impressed those with whom she worked. “From what I’ve seen of her [Pearson], Catherine [sic] is the best. She was the very first to get a collections summary sheet to us for the Natural Sciences synopsis, and she made improvements in our format that helped all of the other summaries.” Sievert Rohwer to Denis Martynowych, e-mail dated UW 7 August 2002. UW Fish Collection files, Curators, Pietsch.
112. See note 65, above.
113. See note 25, above.
114. See note 37, above.