Animal Care and Use Statement

The work proposed here will require the killing of a significant number of vertebrate animals. In all cases, quick and reasonably painless means of euthanasia will be used. Fishes will by killed with sodium pentobarbital or hydrous chlorobutanol, prior to fixation in formalin. Most birds and mammals will be killed by shooting or by kill traps; those taken alive in nets or otherwise will be killed by cervical dislocation; injections of sodium pentobarbital will be used for larger mammals (greater than 200 grams). Reptiles will be killed with sodium pentobarbital, and amphibians with hydrous chlorobutanol. Procedures will adhere strictly to the published guidelines for the appropriate disciplines:

Fishes.--Guidelines for Use of Fishes in Field Research: Joint report of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, American Fisheries Society, and American Institue of Fisheries Research Biologists, 12 pp., 1987.

Amphibians and reptiles.--Guidelines for Use of Live Amphibians and Reptiles in Field Research. Joint report of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Herpetologists' League, and Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 14 pp., 1987.

Birds.--Report of the American Ornithologists' Union, Cooper Ornithological Society, and Wilson Ornithological Society Ad Hoc Committee on the Use of Wild Birds in Research. The Auk, 105(1, Suppl.): 1A-41A, 1988.

Mammals.--Acceptable field methods in mammalogy: preliminary guidelines approved by the American Society of Mammalogists. Jour. Mammal., 68(4, Suppl.): 1-18, 1987.

The present proposal has been submitted to, and approval has been obtained from the University of Washington "Animal Care Committee."

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