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Northwest Coast Languages Bibliography

Over 24 different languages were once spoken by the Native people of Washington State, and over 400 were spoken in North America. After being forced to stop speaking their languages in boarding schools in the early 20th century, today Native elders are struggling to preserve and teach their languages to the younger generations.

Which culture speak which language? Consult this outline of Northwest Coast tribal and language names, including alternate terms.


Links to external Web sites



Bates, Dawn, Thom Hess and Vi Hilbert
  1994 Lushootseed Dictionary. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Boas, Franz
  1911 The Kwakiutl Indian Language in Handbook of American Indian Languages; Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin #40; 1911.
  1891 Vocabularies of the Tlingit, Haida and Tsimshian Languages. American Philosopical Society Proceedings, Vol 29: 183-193.
  1886 The Language of the Bilhoola in British Columbia. Science, ser. 1, 7: 218.
Davis, Henry
  1976 Tlingit/English Dictionary: Nouns. Sitka: Sheldon Jackson College.
Enrico, John
  1989 The Haida Language. Second Beach, B.C.: The Queen Charlotte Islands Museum.
Gibbs, George
  1877 Vocabulary of the Ha-ilt-zukh. Contributions to North American Ethnology, Vol. 1: 144-150.
  1877 Vocabulary of the Belhola. Contributions to North American Ethnology, Vol. 1: 267-283.
  1877 Vocabulary of the Ko-mookhs. Contributions to North American Ethnology, Vol. 1: 269-283.
Goddard, Ives (ed)
  1996 Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 17 - Languages. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
Harrison, C.
  1892 Haida Grammar. Royal Society of Canada Proceedings and Transactoins, ser. 2, 1, pt. 2: 123-226.
Hall, Rev. Alfred J.
  1888 A Grammar of the Kwagiutl Language. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada.
Hess, Thom
  1976 Dictionary of Puget Salish. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Howay, F.W.
  1943 Origin of the Chinook Jargon on the North West Coast. Oregon Historical Society Quarterly, vol. 44: 27-55.
Jacobs, Melville
  1936 Texts in Chinook Jargon. University of Washington Publications in Anthropology Vol. 7, no. 1.
Kuipers, Aert H.
  1967 The Squamish Language; grammar, texts, dictionary. The Hague: Mouton.
Lawrence, Erma (ed).
  1977 Haida Dictionary. Fairbanks: The Society for the Preservation of Haida Language and Literature and The Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska.
Pilling, J. C.
  1893 Bibliography of the Salishan Languages. U.S. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 16: 1-86.
  1894 Bibliography of theWakashan Languages. U.S. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 19: 1-69.
Shaw, George C.
  1909 The Chinook Jargon and How to Use It: A Complete and Exhaustive Lexicon of the Oldest Trade Langage of the American Continent. Seattle:Rainier Printing Company.
Story, Gillian L. and Constance M. Naish
  1973 Tlingit Verb Dictionary. College, AK: University of Alaska Alaska Native Language Center.
Swanton, John R.
  1902 Notes on the Haida Language. American Anthropologist, n.s. 4: 392-403.
Thomas, Edward H.
  1970 Chinook: a History and Dictionary of the Northwest Coast Trade Jargon. Portland: Binfords and Mort.
Tolmie, W.F. and G.M. Dawson
  1884 Comparative Vocabularies of the Indian Tribes of British Columbia. Montreal: 38E-48E.