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Birthstones
crystal quartz

All birthstones are minerals but not all minerals are considered gems. We dive in to the facts, legends and history behind each birthstone.

Blue topaz is an alternate birthstone for December.

Turquoise is composed of hydrated copper and aluminum phosphate. It forms when circulating water alters other aluminum-rich rocks in desert environments.

Citrine as naturally occurring crystals.

Some citrine actually began as purple amethyst, but heat from nearby molten rock changed it to a warm yellow color.

Opal as it naturally occurs in rock.

The presence of water in the mineral structure allows geologists to determine the temperature of the rock at the time the opal formed.

Sapphire is a form of the mineral corundum.

Sapphire is any form of corundum that is not red, as red varieties are called rubies.

Peridot is a type of olivine.

Peridot is type of olivine, and comes in various shades of green, from light to a brilliant olive green. 

Ruby is a form of the mineral corundum.

Ruby originates from metamorphic rock, and is a variety of the mineral corundum, second only to the diamond in hardness.

Moonstone's signature iridescence is evident even in its uncut rock form.

When light enters the stone, it is bounced back and forth between these layers before it exits as the glowing moon-like effect we see.

Emeralds are a variety of the mineral beryl, shown here in its uncut state.

Emerald is another variety of beryl. It is surprisingly common for emeralds to contain flaws and veins of chemicals called inclusions.

Quartz crystal is an alternate birthstone for April.

Diamond is a form of carbon with a tightly bound crystalline structure that originates deep inside the Earth.

Aquamarine gems are a clear blue-green color.

Aquamarine is a variety of the mineral beryl. Beryl generally forms inside granites as magma (molten rock) cools deep inside the Earth.

Amethyst Amethyst is a member of the quartz family.

Amethyst is popular for its color and crystal shapes that produce handsome, purple, sparkling clusters. 

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